Consider a scenario when a Windows driver sweeping through a process address space somehow gets a pointer to a valid address range in the system address space and wants it to be accessible at IRQL greater or equal DISPATCH_LEVEL, i.e. when a scheduler is not available and swapped out pages can't be retrieved from a backing store. The solution is to lock pages by calling MmProbeAndLockPages. Is this is a bullet proof solution? The answer is NO. The driver will cause intermittent system crashes with a stack like shown below
The reason is that a system pool returns a page to a list of free pages and the system does not expect the page to be locked. This happens when the last allocation from a page has been released so the page does not contain valid allocations and can be returned to the system's list of free pages. The system implies that all pool allocations that have been locked are unlocked by calling MmUnlockPages before being freed by calling ExFreePool.